Sikh Women


ChArDi KaLaN
Bibi Bhani Jii​

Bibi Bhani was daughter of Guru Amar Das, consort of Guru Ram Das and mother of Guru Arjan Dev, was born to Mata Mansa Devi on 21 Magh 1591 Bk/19January 1535 at Basarke Gillan, a village near Amritsar. She was married on 18 February 1554 to Bhai Jetha (later Guru Ram Das), a Sodhi Khatri belonging to Lahore, then in Goindval rendering voluntary service in the construction of the Baoli Sahib. After marriage, the couple remained in Goindval serving the Guru. From Goindval Bhai Jetha was deputed by the Guru to go and establish a habitation (present-day Amritsar) on a piece of land gifted, according to one version, by Emperor Akbar to Bibi Bhani at the time of his visit to Guru Amar Das.

Three sons, Prith Chand (1558), Mahadev (1560) and (Guru) Arjan Dev (1563) were born to her. A popular anecdote mentioned in old chronicles describes how devotedly Bibi Bhani served her father. One morning, it is said, as Guru Amar Das was absorbed in meditation, Bibi Bhani noticed that one of the legs of the low wooden seat on which the Guru sat was about to give way. she at once put forward her hand to support the stool. As the Guru ended his devotions, he discovered how her hand was bleeding from the injury it had sustained. He blessed her saying that her progeny would inherit the guruship. Bibi Bhani died at Goindval on 9 April 1598.

Bibi Bhani was mother of Guru Arjan Dev, the Fifth Guru. Undoubtly Guru Arjan Dev was brought up as model GurSikh. Guru Arjan Dev was the first Sikh Martyr. Guru Arjan Dev compiled Adi Granth by collecting all the writings of gurus before him and installed it at Golden Temple, which is now The Guru Granth. Guru Arjan Dev completed the construction of Golden Temple.

Article taken from these book. Encyclopedia of Sikhism edited by Harbans Singh ji.

Bibi Bhani has a unique place in the Sikh history. She is the noble lady who was daughter of a guru (Guru Amardas), wife of a guru (Guru RamDas), mother of a guru (Guru Arjan Dev), grandmother of a guru (Guru Hargobind), great grandmother of a guru (Guru Tegh Bahadar) and great, great grandmother of a guru (Guru Gobind Singh). Out of love, a young girl is called Bibi, but out of respect and love, Bhani is mentioned in the Sikh history, as Bibi, whether she is daughter or mother. She was a symbol of service. She was born in 1533 at village Basarke near Amritsar. She was the youngest daughter of Guru Amar Das so her parents loved her a lot and also called her Mohni (attractive). From her very childhood, she spent a lot of time in meditation and in the service of her father. She served her father like a disciple. In the Sikh history, she is known as an embodiment of service.

It is said that she took special care that her father is not disturbed in his meditation and she served him at the cost of her own health. She was a devoted daughter of her father. Her cheerful, innocent and calm face attracted everybody. She also loved solitude and simplicity. When she grew up, her parents started looking for a suitable match for her. Her mother, Mansa Davi, wanted her husband to be as devoted to service and as humble as she was. They decided to select Jetha who sold roasted grams and also served selflessly in the common kitchen. Bibi Bhani also, like a devoted daughter, willingly accepted the selection made by her parents. Macauliff writes that a Sikh of Guru Amar Das brought some jewelry and precious clothes for Bibi Bhani so that she should use them at the time of her marriage, but she refused and said that this money should be spent for the common kitchen that serves the needy irrespective of his\her caste or creed. This shows her simplicity and love for the poor. She was married in the beginning of 1553.She served Bhai Jetha not only as a husband but also as a saint. She was so contented that she never complained about the poverty of her in-laws. She kept serving her father even after her marriage, as her in-laws were local. She continued doing her worldly duties along with the service of her father. Her husband continued serving in the common kitchen even after his marriage.

The common kitchen at the time of Guru Amar Das was well known in the world. Emperor Akbar was so impressed with the humble service and the food served in the kitchen that he granted land of a few villages revenue-free to Bibi Bhani. Bhai Jetha became Guru Ram Das, the fourth master in 1574.They had three sons, Prithi Chand, Maha Dev, and Arjan Dev. Prithi Chand was arrogant, lazy, and dishonest, but still wanted the guruship after his father. He wanted that his mother should recommend him for guruship. She advised him that the decision made by his father would be on merit and she remained neutral. When Guru Arjan Dev was selected for guruship, Prithi Chand misbehaved with his father. Bibi Bhani snubbed Prithi Chand and admonished him. She said to him that the decision made by his father was impartial. This has been the tradition from the time of Guru Nanak. She also said, “Your father was also selected on the basis of his service and humility.” Bibi Bhani always stood for truth. Her eldest son, Prithi Chand, was ignored due to his haughty nature and the youngest one , Arjan Dev, was made the fifth Guru by his father. Prithi Chand claimed that he was the fifth Guru and through his agents collected the offerings of the devotees before they could see Guru Arjan Dev. He, thus, tried to fail the common kitchen run by Guru Arjan Dev. Bibi Bhani and Bhai Gurdas, a devotee of Guru Arjan Dev, foiled the conspiracy of Prithi Chand and the common kitchen continued as usual. After the death of Guru Ram Das, Bibi Bhani helped her son, Guru Arjan Dev, in every activity undertaken by him and advised him She persuaded Guru Arjan Dev to remarry after the death of his first wife. It seems Guru Arjan Dev has mentioned her blessings and advice in one of his hymns given on page 496 of Guru Granth Sahib. It is being given below:

poothaa maathaa kee aasees || nimukh n bisuro thumu ko har har sudhaa bhujuhu jugudhees ||1|| rehaao || sathigur thumu ko hoe dhaeiaalaa su(n)thusu(n)g thaeree preeth || kaapurr path purumaesur raakhee bhojun keeruthun neeth ||2|| a(n)mrith peevuhu sudhaa chir jeevuhu har simuruth anudh anu(n)thaa || ru(n)g thumaasaa poorun aasaa kubehi n biaapai chi(n)thaa ||3|| bhuvur thumuaaraa eihu mun hovo har churunaa hohu koulaa || naanuk dhaas oun su(n)g luputtaaeiou jio boo(n)dhehi chaathrik moulaa ||4||3||4||

Here ‘th’ stands for s and ‘dh’ for d .) O son, this is your mother's hope and prayer that you may never forget the Lord, even for an instant. May you ever remember the Lord of the Universe!. ||Pause|| May the True Guru be kind to you, and may you love the Society of the Saints!. May the preservation of your honor by the Supreme Lord be your clothes, and may the singing of His Praises be your food! So drink in forever the Nectar. May you live long, and may the meditative remembrance of the Lord give you infinite delight! May joy and pleasure be yours; may your hopes be fulfilled, and may you never be troubled by worries.! Let this mind of yours be the bumblebee, and let the Lord's feet be thy lotus flower. Says servant Nanak, attach your mind to them, and blossom forth like the songbird, upon finding the raindrop. Every mother should give such blessings to her children. When King Jahangir summoned Guru Arjan Dev, she encouraged him to face the difficulties boldly. When Guru Ji was tortured and the news of his martyrdom reached the family, she maintained her composure and did not let her daughter-in-law, Guru Arjan Dev’s wife, and 11 year-old grandson, Hargobind, lose heart. She advised them to abide by God’s will. She encouraged her grandson to face the new situation bravely. She left this world in 1598 at the age of 65 at Tarn Taran where she was serving the lepers. Guru Arjan Dev had a well constructed in her memory at Tarn Taran. It is still known as the Well of Bibi Bhani. We can safely call her the embodiment of service, truth, endurance, obedience, and humility. She will always be remembered for the unique service rendered by her to her father. She has the distinction of being the mother of the first Sikh martyr, Guru Arjan Dev, great-grandmother of the second Sikh martyr, Guru Tegh Bahadur, and great-great- grandmother of Guru Gobind Singh, who sacrificed himslf and his four sons for the sake of justice. Thus she belongs to a family whose seven members were martyred. My head bows in her memory.


ChArDi KaLaN
Re: Sikh Womens

Bibi Kaulan Ji

Qazi Rustam Khan had bought her from her parents while she was a child. The Qazi gave her the education of Islam and sent her to Saint Mian Mir for higher schooling.
Saint Mian Mir was sufi saint. He had no prejudice against any religion. He had a very deep love with Guru Nanak's Institution. It was usual for him to go to Amritsar to meet the Guru. Whenever the Guru visited Lahore, he never went back without seeing Saint Mian Mir. Due to these meetings, Saint Mian Mir knew a large number of Guru's verses by heart which he used to quote to his disciples. Bibi Kaulan also remembered some of the verses by heart which she used to recite by herself for her pleasure. Her attachment to the Guru's institution increased further when she saw the Guru and the Sikhs came from Amritsar to Lahore at the time of the plague epidemic and nursed the patients with their own hands.
One day, Qazi Rustam Khan heard Bibi Kaulan reciting Guru Nanak's verses at home. He rebuked her and said "Do not recite these verses of the infidels in future." Bibi Kaulan Said, "Dear father! Saint Mian Mir bows in all humility to the man you call an infidel and thinks it a privelege to seat him by his side. It is unbecoming to call the man an infidel whome the saint hold in such esteem." The qazi gave a sound thrashing to Bibi Kaulan on hearing the praise of the Gurus from her and said, "I do not want that you recite the verses of these infidels even unintentionally." Between her sobs Bibi Kaulan said, "You may beat me to death but I cannot live without reciting these verses."
Qazi Rustam Khan went and asked other Qazis, "Kaulan persists with reciting the verses of the infidels inspite of my beating. What remedy shoul be adopted? They said, "It is a great sin for the Momins (believers of Islam) to praise the infidels and recite their word. Kaulan should be beheaded for this sin." When Saint Mian Mir heard about the decree of beheading of Bibi Kaulan, he sent her to the Guru's institution at Amritsar through Abdul Yaar Shah where the homeless were protected. Guru Hargobind made arrangement for separate accommodation for Bibi Kaulan. She had no fear at Amritsar of being killed by the order of the Qazis. To immortalize the memory of Bibi Kaulan's resolve to remain firm on her words, the Guru constructed a pool named Kaulsar in 1627 A.D. Bibi Kaulan died at Kartarpur in 1630 A.D