unknown but known to all
Dr S.S. Jodhka, a sociologist from Jawaharlal Nehru University conducted a study in 2001-2002 in 51 villages of Punjab. 41 of the surveyed villages had separate gurdwaras for Dalit Sikhs and nearly two-thirds of the villages had separate cremation grounds for upper castes and Dalits. In a similar survey of 116 villages in one sub-division of Amritsar district, Dr Puri found 68 villages had separate gurdwaras and 72 villages had separate cremation grounds for the Dalits.
According to Dr Puri, the large scale construction of separate gurdwaras by the mazhabis, Ravidasias Kabirpanthis and other caste groups is a significant marker of the resistance against a sense of discrimination among the Scheduled Caste Sikhs.