Genetic Diseases

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Old 30-Mar-2009
Genetic Diseases

Genetic disease can be defined as an ailment which is the result of abnormalities in genes or chromosomes of an individual. On a common level, in case of genetic disorders, the abnormalities are present in all cells of the body, since the time of conception of a child. Diseases such as cancer, which are caused by genetic abnormalities acquired in a few cells during life, are usually not classified as the same. While some of the genetic disorders are the result of chromosomal abnormalities, others occur during the production of germ cells by the parent(s). Till date, 4,000 genetic diseases have been discovered by doctors, with possibility of more being there. In the following lines, we have given the list of some of the most common genetic disorders.

List of Genetic Diseases
  • Achromatopsia (inability to see color)
  • Adrenal Hypoplasia Congenita (reduction in adrenal gland function)
  • Adrenoleukodystrophy (progressive brain damage)
  • Aicardi Syndrome (partial or complete absence of a key structure in brain)
  • Albinism/Hypopigmentation (no melanin pigment in eyes, skin and hair)
  • Alexander Disease (neurodegenerative disease)
  • Alpers' Disease (degenerative disease of the central nervous system)
  • Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (decreased A1AT activity in blood & lungs)
  • Alzheimer's (degenerative disease starting with memory loss)
  • Amblyopia (poor or indistinct vision)
  • Angelman Syndrome (intellectual and developmental delay, seizures)
  • Anencephaly (absence of a major portion of the brain, skull, and scalp)
  • Aniridia (underdevelopment of the eye's iris)
  • Anophthalmia (congenital absence of one or both eyes)
  • Ataxia Telangiectasia (immunodeficiency disorder)
  • Autism (brain development disorder)
  • Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (obesity, pigmentary retinopathy, polydactyly, mental retardation, hypogonadism, and renal failure)
  • Barth Syndrome (metabolism distortion, delayed motor skills, stamina deficiency, hypotonia, chronic fatigue, delayed growth)
  • Batten Disease (fatal, autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder)
  • Best's Disease (progressive vision loss)
  • Bipolar Disorder (a category of mood disorders)
  • Bloom Syndrome (breaks and rearrangements in the chromosomes)
  • Branchio-Oto-Renal (BOR) Syndrome (autosomal disorder of kidneys, ears, and neck)
  • Canavan Syndrome (progressive damage to nerve cells in the brain)
  • Carnitine Deficiencies (metabolic disorders)
  • Cerebral Palsy (physical disability in human development)
  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (loss of muscle tissue and touch sensation)
  • Cleft Lip/Cleft Palate (abnormal facial development during gestation)
  • Coffin Lowry Syndrome (mental retardation and delayed development)
  • Coloboma (hole in one of the structures of the eye)
  • Color Blindness
  • Congenital Heart Defects
  • Congenital Hip Dysplasia (Dislocation)
  • Connective Tissue Disorders
  • Cooley's Anemia/ Thalassemia (formation of abnormal haemoglobin molecules)
  • Corneal Dystrophy (non-inflammatory, bilateral opacity of cornea)
  • Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (severe developmental anomalies)
  • Cystic Fibrosis (progressive disability due to multisystem failure)
  • Cystinosis (autosomal recessive disorder of the renal tubules)
  • Developmental Disabilities
  • Diabetes
  • Down Syndrome (impairment of cognitive ability, physical growth & facial appearance)
  • Duane Syndrome (inability of the eye to turn out)
  • Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (defect in collagen synthesis)
  • Epidermolysis Bullosa (extremely fragile skin & recurrent blister formation)
  • Familial Dysautonomia (disorder of the autonomic nervous system)
  • Familial Mediterranean Fever (inflammatory disorder)
  • Fanconi Anemia (short stature, skeletal anomalies, bone marrow failure)
  • Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (disease of the connective tissue)
  • Fragile X Syndrome (X-linked mental retardation)
  • G6PD (Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase) Deficiency Anemia
  • Galactosemia (inefficient metabolism of the sugar galactose0
  • Gaucher Disease (deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase)
  • Gilbert's Syndrome (high levels of unconjugated bilirubin in bloodstream)
  • Glaucoma (diseases of the optic nerve)
  • Hemochromatosis (excessive absorption of dietary iron)
  • Hemoglobin C Disease (abnormal hemoglobin)
  • Hemophilia/Bleeding Disorders (inefficient control over blood clotting or coagulation)
  • Hirschsprung's Disease (enlargement of the colon)
  • Homocystinuria (disorder of the metabolism of the amino acid methionine)
  • Huntington's Disease (abnormal body movements)
  • Hurler Syndrome (deficiency of alpha-L iduronidase)
  • Klinefelter Syndrome (small testicles and reduced fertility)
  • Krabbe Disease (fatal degenerative disorder of nervous system)
  • Leber Congenital Amaurosis (loss of vision)
  • Leukodystrophies (progressive degeneration of the white matter of brain)
  • Long Q-T Syndrome (heart problem)
  • Macular Degeneration (loss of central vision)
  • Marfan Syndrome (disorder of the connective tissue)
  • Marshall-Smith Syndrome (unusual accelerated skeletal maturation)
  • McCune-Albright Syndrome (disorder of bones, hormones & skin pigmentation)
  • Menkes Disease (disorder that affects copper levels in the body)
  • Metabolic Disorders
  • Mitochondrial Disease
  • Mucolipidoses
  • Mucopolysaccharide Disorders
  • Muscular Dystrophy (progressive muscle weakness)
  • Neonatal Onset Multisystem Inflammatory Disease (uncontrolled inflammation in multiple parts of the body)
  • Neurofibromatosis (grow of tumors in nerve cells - Schwann cells)
  • Niemann-Pick Disease (disorder affecting lipid metabolism)
  • Noonan Syndrome (heart malformation, short stature, learning problems)
  • Optic Atrophy (loss of some or most of the fibers of the optic nerve)
  • Osteogenesis Imperfecta (no protein - collagen, or the ability to make it)
  • Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (benign hamartomatous polyps in gastrointestinal tract)
  • Phenylketonuria (PKU) (deficiency in enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase)
  • Polycystic Kidney Disease (multiple cysts in both kidneys)
  • Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum (fragmentation and mineralization of elastic fibers in tissues)
  • Progeria (accelerated aging)
  • Ptosis (drooping upper eyelid or breasts)
  • Rentinitis Pigmentosa
  • Scheie Syndrome (absence or malfunctioning of lysosomal enzymes)
  • Schizophrenia (impairments in the perception or expression of reality)
  • Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) (crippling of adaptive immune system)
  • Sickle Cell Anemia (abnormal, rigid, sickle shape of red blood cells)
  • Skeletal Dysplasias (abnormal bone and cartilage development)
  • Smith-Magenis Syndrome (developmental disorder)
  • Spherocytosis (production of bi-concave disk shaped red blood cells)
  • Spina Bifida (incompletely formed spinal cord)
  • Spinocerebellar Ataxia (progressive in-coordination of gait)
  • Stargardt Disease (Macular Degeneration) (progressive vision loss)
  • Stickler Syndrome (disorders affecting connective tissue, mainly collagen)
  • Tay-Sachs Disease (usually affects nervous tissue of the brain)
  • Treacher Collins Syndrome (craniofacial deformities)
  • Tuberous Sclerosis (causes benign tumors in various body parts)
  • Turner's Syndrome (only one X chromosome in each cell of a female)
  • Urea Cycle Disorder (deficiency of one of the enzymes in the urea cycle causing irreversible brain damage and/or death)
  • Usher's Syndrome (deafness and a gradual vision loss)
  • Velocardiofacial Syndrome (deletion of a small piece of chromosome 22)
  • von Hippel-Lindau Disease (abnormal growth of tumors in body parts)
  • Werner Syndrome (premature aging)
  • Williams Syndrome ("elfin" facial appearance, with a low nasal bridge)
  • Xeroderma Pigmentosum (deficient ability to repair damage caused by ultraviolet (UV) light)
  • XXX Syndrome (an extra X chromosome in each cell of a female)
  • XYY Syndrome (an extra Y chromosome in each cell of a male)

Old 06-Apr-2009
jatt funjabi
Re: Genetic Diseases


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